Phosphonates or phosphonic acids are organic compounds containing C–PO(OH)2 or C–PO(OR)2 groups (where R = alkyl, aryl). Most phosphonates are highly water-soluble, while phosphonic acids are only sparingly soluble. Phosphonates are not volatile and are poorly soluble in organic solvents. Normally they are more efficient FRs than phosphates, but raw materials for phosphonates are more expensive than for phosphates.
The behavior of phosphonates in terms of their environmental fate and effects has been well investigated showing poor biodegradability and low aquatic toxicity. Phosphonates have found use in medicine and agriculture. One such compound, phosphinothricin tripeptide has been extensively studied as both antibiotic and herbicide.
How to synthesize Phosphonates?
Phosphonates can be synthesized using the Michaelis–Arbuzov reaction from phosphites P(OR)3. Some phosphonates are produced on industrial scale, and a few are also applied as FRs for polymers.
What are phosphate magnetic particles?
Phosphate magnetic particles are superparamagnetic beads functionalized with phosphonates or diphosphates. Phosphate magnetic particles can chelate many metal ions through strong covalent bonds. Unlike surfactants with -OH and -COOH end functional groups, phosphate groups can form robust self-assembled monolayers on polar surfaces. In addition, the phosphate groups can coordinate directly with cations, which makes phosphate magnetic particles particularly suitable for applications where organic molecules are strongly bound to surfaces.
Phosphate magnetic particles for research use
CD Bioparticles offers Absolute Mag™ Phosphonate Magnetic Particles with silica and starch coatings. Our products are rich in phosphate groups and are highly superhydrophilic and thermodynamically stable.
These Phosphate Magnetic Particles include 1) Phosphonate Magnetic Particles, Silica that are magnetic particles with terminal ion-exchange groups and coated with silica; 2) Phosphate Magnetic Particles, Starch-coated that are covered with phosphate starch and can be used for purification of basic proteins and drug targeting; and 3) Phosphate Magnetic Particles, Diphosphate-coated that are covered with diphosphate sodium which can be used for binding of cationic molecules.
For example, Absolute Mag™ Phosphate Magnetic Particles, 50 nm (# WHM-C147) are ferrofluids consisting of an aqueous dispersion of magnetic iron oxides with diameters of 50 nm. The beads are covered with phosphate starch and can be used for purification of basic proteins and drug targeting.
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2. Peck, S. C., Gao, J., & Van Der Donk, W. A. (2012). Discovery and biosynthesis of phosphonate and phosphinate natural products. In Methods in enzymology (Vol. 516, pp. 101-123). Academic Press.
3. Hörold, S. (2014). Phosphorus-based and intumescent flame retardants. In Polymer Green Flame Retardants (pp. 221-254). Elsevier.