Glucosamine is a natural component of cartilage and is widely used as an over-the-counter nutritional supplement to reduce the pain and cartilage loss of osteoarthritis. Glucosamine is usually taken in combination with chondroitin, which is a glycosaminoglycan that also exists in cartilage. Glucosamine is an amino sugar and an important molecule in the biochemical pathway of glycosylated protein and lipid synthesis. It is also the main component of keratin sulfate and hyaluronic acid present in articular cartilage and synovial fluid. Both glucosamine and chondroitin are reduced in osteoarthritis. Clinically, active supplementation of glucosamine and chondroitin can relieve the symptoms of arthritis. Therefore, it is widely used to treat osteoarthritis and arthritis pain. D-glucosamine is a monosaccharide containing an amine group instead of a hydroxyl group. Like most saccharides, it mainly exists in a cyclic configuration rather than a linear form. Only the D-enantiomer of glucosamine exists in nature. It is found in chitin (a cellulose-like polymer of N-acetylglucosamine), mucin (protein with a carbohydrate content of more than 4%), and mucopolysaccharides (polysaccharides containing repetitive amino sugars/non-amino sugar disaccharides). Which Food Contains Glucosamine? Glucosamine is a natural sugar found in the fluid around joints, animal bones, bone marrow, shellfish and fungi. The glucosamine in supplements usually comes from shellfish, but there are also synthetic forms. Does Glucosamine Cause Liver Injury? There are reports that large amounts of glucosamine may cause liver damage. The mechanism by which glucosamine or chondroitin may cause liver damage is unclear. Glucosamine is a simple amino sugar, and chondroitin is a glycosaminoglycan. Both are natural products found in the cartilage of humans and mammals. The glucosamine in commercial dietary supplements is usually made from shellfish exoskeleton or grain fermentation. The concentration, purity, and contaminants in commercial preparations of glucosamine and chondroitin are not always clear. In What Form is Glucosamine Used Clinically? Glucosamine is generally used in clinical treatment in the form of Glucosamine hydrochloride. People can take glucosamine hydrochloride by mouth to treat osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, glaucoma, jaw disease called temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD), joint pain, back pain, and weight loss. Specifically, glucosamine hydrochloride is often used together with chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage and camphor to treat osteoarthritis skin. And it is used parenterally and short-term to relieve symptoms of osteoarthritis. D-Glucosamines for Research Use? As a drug delivery company that specializes in a range of formulation and drug delivery technologies, CD Bioparticles now offers a series of D-Glucosamines for research uses, such as CInd™ D-Glucosamine Hydrochloride, CInd™ D-Glucosamine Sulfate·2KCl, and CInd™ N-acetyl-D-Glucosamine. Take CInd™ D-glucosamine hydrochloride (catalog: CSGN007) as an example. D-glucosamine hydrochloride has important physiological functions to the human body, such as participating in liver and kidney detoxification, protecting the liver from inflammation, stimulating the increase of infant intestinal bifidobacteria, treating rheumatoid arthritis and gastric ulcers, and controlling growth cells. It is an important raw material for the synthesis of antibiotics and anti-cancer drugs, and is also used in foods and food additives. References 1. Hoofnagle, Jay H., et al. LiverTox: a website on drug‐induced liver injury. Hepatology. 2013. 873-874

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D-Glucosamines