Probiotics, in simple terms, are a group of microorganisms that can effectively promote human health. They can resist gastric acid and bile acid, and can attach and colonize in the intestinal tract. According to statistics, the human gastrointestinal tract contains a rich and diverse microbial community, gathering more than 100 trillion microorganisms. These microbiomes encode more than 3 million genes (the human genome is composed of approximately 23,000 genes) and produce thousands of metabolites. 80% of immune cells are distributed here, which has a decisive influence on metabolism and immune function. These intestinal microbiota play an important role in maintaining the stability of the intestinal environment, including: nutrient metabolism, vitamin K and vitamin B12 synthesis, metabolism of exogenous organisms, and prevention of pathological biological invasion and maintenance of barriers. 1. Help to lose weight Obesity can be attributed to the imbalance between energy expenditure and energy intake and has become a major public health problem because it is related to type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and other metabolic diseases. Although exogenous factors, such as excessive calorie intake and sedentary lifestyle, are the main factors leading to obesity. But endogenous factors, such as specific genetic mutations, may make some people more prone to obesity. It is possible that probiotics help lose weight, but due to the heterogeneity of the included studies, further verification is needed to confirm the efficacy of the strain, the amount of administration, and the time of intervention. 2. Probiotics improve sleep quality Gut and brain communicate with each other via the gut-brain axis, a specific pathway that involves the neural, endocrine, and immune systems. The intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in this bidirectional communication since it can influence mood and cognitive functions by producing neurotransmitter precursors that reach the brain through the endocrine and the autonomic nervous systems where they regulate the level of specific neurotransmitters. Improving the gut microbiota could improve the quality of sleep, as the gut bacteria also produce melatonin that the brain uses to regulate sleep. It has been found that that probiotics support sleep quality and reduce the number of episodes of wakefulness in individuals suffering from sleep alterations and/or insomnia and, specifically, induce a more mature sleep pattern in infants and young children. 3. Good for vaginal infections A vaginal infection is defined as any condition with abnormal vaginal discharge, smell, irritation, itching, or burning. Common causes are bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Among them, bacterial vaginal infection and vulvovaginal candidiasis are the most common, which are estimated to occur in 5% to 70% of women. Without treatment, bacterial vaginal infections are a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including miscarriage in the second trimester, spontaneous preterm delivery, and post-cesarean endometritis. Studies have shown that, compared with the use of traditional drugs alone, probiotics for women combined with drugs can reduce the recurrence rate and increase the cure rate in a short period of time. 4. Beneficial blood pressure regulation Like smoking, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, high blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. About 30% of deaths worldwide are caused by cardiovascular disease. In most countries, 15% to 30% of adults and more than 50% of the elderly suffer from hypertension, which is also a serious public health problem. Daily consumption of probiotics can help improve blood pressure. The underlying mechanism may be related to the improvement of blood cholesterol, lowering blood sugar levels and insulin resistance, and regulating the renin-angiotensin system of probiotics

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