In the process of planting crops, human beings usually suffer from insect pests, which seriously affect the yield and quality of food. In order to prevent and control pests, people have to use pesticides to escort crop planting and production.
Organophosphorus is a common pesticide, and improper protection can lead to farmers’ organophosphorus poisoning. In order to remove pesticide residues, scientists began to study how to effectively reduce the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides. The study found that organophosphorus usually contains three phosphorus ester bonds, and if one of the phosphorus ester bonds is hydrolyzed, its toxicity will be greatly reduced.
In the 1970s, a study found that some soil microorganisms have a degrading effect on pesticides. These microorganisms secrete an enzyme that hydrolyzes phosphate bonds, that is, organophosphorus pesticide-degrading enzymes. Subsequently, the researchers screened a strain of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes with broad-spectrum degradation characteristics of organophosphorus pesticides from the soil contaminated by organophosphorus pesticides. They cloned the gene ophc2 encoding organophosphorus degrading enzyme (OPHC2) from this strain, and reconstructed and expressed it in Pichia pastoris. Subsequently, the cell factory was used to produce organophosphorus-degrading enzymes, and the high-efficiency expression and mass production of organophosphorus-degrading enzymes were realized.
At present, this research achievement has been successfully applied to the professional decontamination of hazardous chemicals, the restoration of polluted water bodies and soil, etc. In terms of removing pesticide residues on the surface of fruits and vegetables, agricultural enzymes have become the last line of defense on people’s dining table. People have also used the results of genetic intelligence to win the battle to protect food health by removing pesticide residues.
Biological enzymes have been developed as early as the 1980s. For example, enzymes are widely used in various fields of the textile industry and are recognized as a green production process that meets environmental protection requirements. Now the biological enzyme engineering technology is becoming more and more mature, the fields of application are gradually expanding, and great progress has also been made in agriculture. Among them, the characteristics of non-toxic and harmless, less dosage, and remarkable efficacy are the most eye-catching, and they are already in use. After the biological enzyme fertilizer is applied to the soil, the effect of improving the soil is manifested in promoting the formation of soil aggregate structure, increasing the replacement capacity of the soil, improving the buffer performance of the soil, and enhancing the activity of soil microorganisms.
The use of biological enzymes can effectively reduce pesticide residues and quickly decompose pesticide residues, improving the quality of crops. At the same time, it resists root disease and improves crop immunity, making crops more adaptable to extreme weather such as drought and flood, and has a good effect on resistance to diseases and insect pests. Compared with the crops grown under the same conditions, the average maturity period is more than 7 days earlier, the sugar content of fruits and vegetables is increased by 2-5 degrees, the fiber density of the pulp is fuller, the taste is better, and the storage time of fruits and vegetables is also prolonged.
More can be found at https://www.creative-enzymes.com/cate/agriculture-biomass-and-biofuels_105.html