Extracts are liquid or solid natural active ingredients extracted from animal or plant raw materials. Plant extract is a product made from plants. It is formed by physicochemical extraction and separation process according to the needs of the use of the extracted final product, and directed acquisition and concentration of one or more active ingredients in the plant without changing the structure of the active ingredients. Because of its low drug resistance, plant extracts are not prone to additive residues and certain toxic side effects, and have extremely high edible safety. In recent years, the research and development of functional food and beverages using plant extracts as raw materials has become a research hotspot in various countries. How are plant extracts classified? According to different properties, it can be divided into vegetable oil, extract, powder, lens, etc.; according to function, it can be divided into growth promoter, immunomodulator, antioxidant, flavoring agent, deodorant, antifungal agent, product quality improver, etc. According to the different components of the extract, it is divided into alkaloids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids and other compounds. Main ingredients of plant extracts (1) Alkaloids, namely plant alkaloids, are important effective ingredients in Chinese herbal medicines, such as the coccine in Coptis and ephedrine in Ephedra. (2) Flavonoids have biological activities such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant. Common flavonoids include propolis, soybean isoflavones, anthocyanins, tea polyphenols, etc. (3) Polysaccharides have the functions of lowering serum cholesterol, anti-cancer, and regulating immunity, such as Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide, lentinan, algae polysaccharide and so on. (4) Glycosides are substances combined with sugars, phenols and flavonoids. Different types of aglycones have different physiological activities and have various functions. (5) Essential oils, also known as essential oils, are oily liquids with aroma and volatility. Common essential oils are peppermint oil, rose essential oil, and garlic oil. (6) Organic acids such as citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid, etc. are the most effective substitutes for antibiotics, which can regulate the intestinal flora. Are plant extracts food additives or food? Currently, there is no uniform regulation in the United States for the use of plant extracts as food materials, and some substances are regulated in different forms. Some plant extracts can be used as food additives. According to their functions, they can be divided into: (1) Antioxidants: rosemary extract, tea polyphenols, licorice antioxidants, etc. (2) Natural flavors: clove bud tincture, bay leaf extract, ginger extract, licorice extract, aloe extract, etc. (3) Coloring agent: beet red, caramel color, curcumin, chili red, citrus yellow, etc. (4) Sweeteners: thaumatin, stevioside, mogroside, etc. What are the research directions of plant extract products? At present, the research direction of plant extract industry has the following four trends: (1) Research and development of new products With the development of science and technology and the expansion of the field of plant research, scientists have discovered many new plant resources and functional ingredients that are beneficial to the human body. The industrialization of these research results and the development of new plant extract products are the direction of continuous research in the industry. (2) Research and development of new technology The plant extract industry is an emerging industry with a relatively high technological content. The technological content of the extraction process determines the quality of the extract product to a large extent. The technological level is a key factor in determining the competitiveness of natural plant extract products. Continuously improving and developing new processes, increasing the extraction rate, improving quality, reducing costs, and improving product technical and economic indicators. (3) Research and development of natural active monomer components Because the plant extract monomer has a precise structure, stronger effect, higher price and higher efficiency, the technical development direction of natural plant extract products is to extract and separate effective active monomers. (4) Research and development of natural health functional products As the concept of natural and healthy consumption gradually gains popularity, the market has shown unprecedented enthusiasm for health foods, beverages, cosmetics and other products with added plant extracts. The development of such products is also the research direction of the plant extract industry.

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